Indo-Pak War 1965

1965 India – Pakistan War Commemoration Day

1965 dp

1 September 1965 – 22 September 1965

Commemoration: 28 Aug-22 Sep

Operation: Op Riddle

Martyrs: 3000 approx.

Awards: 2 PVC, 38 MVC,175 VrC

1965 India – Pakistan War Commemoration Day

28 Aug 1965,the day India captured Haji Pir Pass, now in POK was the turning point in the Indo-Pak War of 1965 and is considered as victory day, though the war ended,with UN mandated ceasefire on 23 Sep. It was the second war fought between India and Pakistan and saw an unprecedented engagement of troops in the disputed regions. Undeniably, the war changed the course of history for both these nations.

The first inklings of the war began with the dispute over the Rann of Kutch. In April, 1965, intermittent attacks and skirmishes broke out between the two nations as Pakistan attempted to annex the territory originally controlled by India. In June 1965, there was a ceasefire and subsequently a tribunal, following the intervention of Britain. The success of Pakistan in this skirmish along with the disastrous losses faced by India in the 1962 Indo-Sino War convinced Pakistani military officials that they could successfully launch a campaign to capture the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

The spark of the 1965 War was a clandestine infiltration operation launched by Pakistan in August. Operation Gibraltar was a strategy to infiltrate JAK and incite a rebellion against Indian rule. The operation, however, was unsuccessful and Indian troops retaliated by launching a full-scale attack on Pakistan on August 15th. Initially, the conflict was confined to the regions of Kashmir and Punjab. By the end of August, both countries seemed to have equal footing with Pakistan controlling the regions of Tithwal, Uri and Poonch and Indian recapturing Haji Pir Pass.

Following this was an air battle in the state of Punjab. On 1st September, Pakistan launched Operation Grand Slam, following which, the Battle of Chamb was fought, marking a huge success for Pakistan in Akhnoor. On September 6th, Indian troops crossed the International Border on the West, marking the official start of the war. The attack followed a three point invasion by Indian troops towards the city of Lahore.

The Indian forces pushed an offensive towards Sialkot leading to the Battle of Chawinda, while the Pakistani forces pushed towards Khem Karan. The famed Battle of Asal Uttar in the Indian town of Khem Karan, fought between the 8th and the 10th of September, is regarded as the greatest tank battle since WW2. This battle was a turning point of the war and proved a win for India. Hostilities in Rajasthan commenced on the 8th resulting in the capture of the fort Kishangarh by the Pakistan forces.

The battle eventually ended in a standstill. The Soviet Union and the US grew wary of the rising conflict and pressurised the countries to sign a ceasefire. With the heavy casualties and declining ammunition along with international pressure, the former Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri and the President of Pakistan Ayub Khan, signed the Tashkent Agreement. The five week war ended on the 23rd of September.

Many argue that the war was a loss to both sides. Though it started as an ambition for geographic conquest, neither side gained from the brutal war. The small achievements in the gain was easily overshadowed by the loss incurred. India witnessed casualties of about 3000 soldiers, 150 tanks, and nearly 70 aircrafts.

We commemorate this notable war, not for the victory of our nation, but for the bravery of our soldiers. Our courageous troops stood before the enemy without fear as they looked into the face of death without turning back. They feared not for their lives but for the honour of their country. They held the flag high even in the most treacherous peaks, and mounted on tanks unafraid shouting their war cries as they fell for their motherland. Even as they are gone, their legacy remains in the most supreme form of patriotism. Time may pass, but they will live forever in our hearts.

Background

Pakistan and India remained in contention over several issues since the partition of 1947. Although the Kashmir conflict was the predominant issue dividing the nations, other border disputes existed, most notably over the Rann of Kutch, a barren region in the Indian state of Gujarat. The issue first arose in 1956 which ended with India regaining control over the disputed area. Pakistani patrols began patrolling in territory controlled by India in January 1965, which was followed by attacks by both countries on each other’s posts on 8 April 1965. Initially involving border police from both nations, the disputed area soon witnessed intermittent skirmishes between the countries’ armed forces. In June 1965, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson successfully persuaded both countries to end hostilities and set up a tribunal to resolve the dispute. The verdict, which came later in 1968, saw Pakistan awarded 350 square miles (910 km2) of the Rann of Kutch, as against its original claim of 3,500 square miles (9,100 km2).

Pakistan had found a new found ally in China. India and China had just finished the 1962 Indo-Sino war and the Indian army was in a state of recuperation from the morale dampening defeat. Pakistan had significantly upgraded its quality of ammunition whereas India had fallen behind and were still using arms of the World War 2 era. America had bolstered all the five divisions of the Pakistani army by supplying them with 100 F-86 Sabre jets, one squadron of F-104 Star Fighters, 30 B-57 bombers and four C-130 transport aircrafts. They had 765 tanks in total compared to 720 of India. Pakistan were buoyed by their new found military strength and General Ayub Khan felt that this was the best opportunity to strike at India and resolve the Kashmir issue. They felt that India wouldn’t be able to cope with a quick military campaign in the disputed Kashmir region. They also felt that this military campaign could spark off a resistance movement in Kashmir, as the majority of the population in Kashmir was Muslim. Pakistan attempted to ignite the resistance movement by means of a covert infiltration, codenamed Operation Gibraltar. However, the Pakistani infiltrators were soon discovered and their presence was reported by local Kashmiris, and the operation ended unsuccessfully.

The War

A large number of Pakistani soldiers crossed the Line of Control on 5 August 1965, dressed as Kashmiri locals headed for various areas within Kashmir. The number was said to be between 26,000 and 33,000 and this raised suspicion among the local population. They tipped off the Indian army, who crossed the line of cease fire on 15 August.

Initially, the Indian Army met with considerable success, capturing three important mountain positions after a prolonged artillery barrage. By the end of August, however, both sides had relative progress; Pakistan had made progress in areas such as Tithwal, Uri and Poonch and India had captured the Haji Pir pass, 8 km into Pakistan-Administered Kashmir.

On 1 September 1965, Pakistan launched a counterattack, called Operation Grand Slam, with the objective to capture the vital town of Akhnoor in Jammu, which would sever communications and cut off supply routes to Indian troops. Ayub Khan calculated that “Hindu morale would not stand more than a couple of hard blows at the right time and place” although by this time Operation Gibraltar had failed and India had captured the Haji Pir Pass. At 3:30 hours, on 1 September 1965, the entire Chhamb area came under massive artillery bombardment. Pakistan had launched operation Grand Slam and India’s Army Headquarter was taken by surprise. Attacking with an overwhelming ratio of troops and technically superior tanks, Pakistan made gains against Indian forces, who were caught unprepared and suffered heavy losses. India responded by calling in its air force to blunt the Pakistani attack. The next day, Pakistan retaliated, its air force attacked Indian forces and air bases in both Kashmir and Punjab. India’s decision to open up the theatre of attack into Pakistani Punjab forced the Pakistani army to relocate troops engaged in the operation to defend Punjab. Operation Grand Slam therefore failed, as the Pakistan Army was unable to capture Akhnoor; it became one of the turning points in the war when India decided to relieve pressure on its troops in Kashmir by attacking Pakistan further south. In the valley, another area of strategic importance was Kargil. Kargil town was in Indian hands but Pakistan occupied high ground overlooking Kargil and Srinagar-Leh road. However, after the launch of a massive anti-infiltration operation by the Indian army, the Pakistani infiltrators were forced out of that area in the month of August.

Lt. Col. Hari Singh of the India's 18th Cavalry posing outside a captured Pakistani police station (Barkee) in Lahore District.
Lt. Col. Hari Singh of the India’s 18th Cavalry posing outside a captured Pakistani police station (Barkee) in Lahore District.

India crossed the International Border on the Western front on 6 September, marking an official beginning of the war. On 6 September, the 15th Infantry Division of the Indian Army, under World War II veteran Major General Prasad, battled a massive counterattack by Pakistan near the west bank of the Icchogil Canal (BRB Canal), which was a de facto border of India and Pakistan. The General’s entourage itself was ambushed and he was forced to flee his vehicle. A second, this time successful, attempt to cross the Ichhogil Canal was made over the bridge in the village of Barki, just east of Lahore. These developments brought the Indian Army within the range of Lahore International Airport. As a result, the United States requested a temporary ceasefire to allow it to evacuate its citizens in Lahore. However, the Pakistani counterattack took Khem Karan from Indian forces which tried to divert the attention of Pakistanis from Khem Karan by an attack on Bedian and the adjacent villages.

The thrust against Lahore consisted of the 1st Infantry Division supported by the three tank regiments of the 2nd Independent Armoured Brigade; they quickly advanced across the border, reaching the Ichhogil (BRB) Canal by 6 September. The Pakistani Army held the bridges over the canal or blew up those it could not hold, effectively stalling any further advance by the Indians on Lahore. One unit of the Indian Jat Regiment, 3 Jat, had also crossed the Icchogil canal and captured the town of Batapore (Jallo Mur to Pakistan) on the west side of the canal. The same day, a counter offensive consisting of an armoured division and infantry division supported by Pakistan Air ForceSabres forced the Indian 15th Division to withdraw to its starting point. Although 3 Jat suffered minimal casualties, the bulk of the damage being taken by ammunition and stores vehicles, the higher commanders had no information of 3 Jat’s capture of Batapore and misleading information led to the command to withdraw from Batapore and Dograi to Ghosal-Dial. This move brought extreme disappointment to Lt-Col Desmond Hayde, CO of 3 Jat. Dograi was eventually recaptured by 3 Jat on 21 September, for the second time but after a much harder battle due to Pakistani reinforcements.

1965 1 Destroyed or abandoned Pakistani Patton and Sherman tanks on display near Khem Karan. About 97 Pakistani tanks were either destroyed or captured by India during the Battle of Asal Uttar.

On 8 September 1965, a company of 5 Maratha Light Infantry was sent to reinforce a Rajasthan Armed Constabulary (RAC) post at Munabao – a strategic hamlet about 250 kilometres from Jodhpur. Their brief was simple. To hold the post and to keep Pakistan’s infantry battalions from overrunning the post at bay. But at Maratha Hill (in Munabao) – as the post has now been christened – the Indian company could barely manage to thwart the intense attack for 24 hours. A company of 3 Guards with 954 heavy mortar battery ordered to reinforce the RAC post at Munabao could never reach. The Pakistani Air Force had strafed the entire area, and also hit a railway train coming from Barmer with reinforcements near Gadra road railway station. On 10 September, Munabao fell into Pakistani hands, and efforts to capture the strategic point did not succeed.

On the days following 9 September, both nations’ premiere formations were routed in unequal battles. India’s 1st Armoured Division, labeled the “pride of the Indian Army”, launched an offensive towards Sialkot. The Division divided itself into two prongs, was forced back by the Pakistani 6th Armoured Division at Chawinda and was forced to withdraw after suffering heavy losses of nearly 100 tanks. The Pakistanis followed up their success by launching Operation Windup, which forced the Indians back farther. Similarly, Pakistan’s pride, the 1st Armoured Division, pushed an offensive towards Khem Karan, with the intent to capture Amritsar (a major city in Punjab, India) and the bridge on River Beas to Jalandhar.

The Pakistani 1st Armoured Division never made it past Khem Karan, however, and by the end of 10 September lay disintegrated by the defences of the Indian 4th Mountain Division known as the Battle of Asal Uttar . The area became known as ‘Patton Nagar’ (Patton Town), because of the large number of US-made Pakistani Patton tanks. Approximately 97 Pakistani tanks were destroyed or abandoned, with only 32 Indian tanks destroyed or damaged. The Pakistani 1st Armoured Division less 5th Armoured Brigade was next sent to Sialkot sector behind Pakistani 6th Armoured Division where it didn’t see action as 6th Armoured Division was already in process of routing Indian 1st Armoured Division which was superior to it in strength.

The hostilities in the Rajasthan sector commenced on September the 8th. Initially Pakistan Desert Force and the Hur militia was placed in a defensive role, a role for which they were well suited as it turned out. The Hurs were familiar with the terrain and the local area and possessed many essential desert survival skills which their opponents and their comrades in the Pakistan Army did not. Fighting as mainly light infantry, the Hur inflicted many casualties on the Indian forces as they entered Sindh. The Hurs were also employed as skirmishers, harassing the Indians LOC, a task they often undertook on camels. As the battle wore on the Hurs and the Desert Force were increasingly used to attack and capture Indian villages inside Rajasthan. It was in this vein that an assault on Kishangarh fort was launched. The attack surprised the Indians and the fort was captured after several days of bitter fighting.

The war was heading for a stalemate, with both nations holding territory of the other. The Indian army suffered 3,000 battlefield deaths, while Pakistan suffered 3,800. The Indian army was in possession of 758.9 miles² (1,920 km²) of Pakistani territory and the Pakistan army held 210 mile² (550 km²) of Indian territory. The territory occupied by India was mainly in the fertile Sialkot, Lahore and Kashmir sectors, while Pakistani land gains were primarily south in deserts opposite to Sindh and in Chumb sector near Kashmir in north. However, some analysts like Lalita Prasada, Manus I. Midlarsky and Col J Francis (Retd) agree with the Pakistani claim that Pakistan held 1600 square miles of Indian territory (1300 of it in the dessert).

Aerial warfare

The war saw aircraft of the Indian Air Force (IAF) and the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) engaging in combat for the first time since independence. Though the two forces had previously faced off in the First Kashmir War during the late 1940s, that engagement was very limited in scale compared to the 1965 conflict.

The IAF was flying large numbers of Hawker Hunter, Indian-manufactured Folland Gnats, de Havilland Vampires, EE Canberra bombers and a squadron of MiG-21s. The PAF’s fighter force comprised 102 F-86F Sabres and 12 F-104 Starfighters, along with 24 B-57 Canberra bombers. During the conflict, the PAF claimed it was out-numbered by around 5:1.

The PAF’s aircraft were largely of American origin, whereas the IAF flew an assortment of British and Soviet aeroplanes. It has been widely reported that the PAF’s American aircraft were superior to those of the IAF.

The PAF’s F-104 Starfighter of the PAF was the fastest fighter operating in the subcontinent. In combat, the Starfighter was not as effective as the IAF’s far more agile, albeit much slower, Folland Gnat fighter. Yet it zoomed into an ongoing dogfight between Sabres and Gnats, at supersonic speed, successfully broke off the fight and caused the Gnats to egress. An IAF Gnat, piloted by Squadron Leader Brij Pal Singh Sikand, landed at an abandoned Pakistani airstrip at Pasrur and was captured by the Pakistan Army. The Pakistan Air Force had fought well in countering the much large Indian Air Force and supported the ground forces.

The two countries have made contradictory claims of combat losses during the war and few neutral sources have verified the claims of either country. The PAF claimed it shot down 104 IAF planes and lost 19 of its own, while the IAF claimed it shot down 73 PAF planes and lost 59. According to PAF, It flew 86 F-86 Sabres, 10 F-104 Starfighters and 20 B-57 Canberras in a parade soon after the war was over. Thus disproving the IAF’s claim of downing 73 PAF fighters, which at the time constituted nearly the entire Pakistani front-line fighter force.

Indian sources have pointed out that, despite PAF claims of losing only a squadron of combat craft, Pakistan sought to acquire additional aircraft from Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Turkey and China within 10 days of the beginning war. The two air forces were rather equal in the conflict, because much of the Indian air force remained farther east to guard against the possibility of China entering the war. According to the independent sources, the PAF lost some 20 aircraft while the Indians lost 60–75. Pakistan ended the war having depleted 17 percent of its front line strength, while India’s losses amounted to less than 10 percent. Moreover, the loss rate had begun to even out, and it has been estimated that another three week’s fighting would have seen the Pakistani losses rising to 33 percent and India’s losses totalling 15 percent. Air superiority was not achieved, and were unable to prevent IAF fighter bombers and reconnaissance Canberras from flying daylight missions over Pakistan. Thus 1965 was a stalemate in terms of the air war with neither side able to achieve complete air superiority. However, according to Kenneth Werrell, the Pakistan Air Force “did well in the conflict and probably had the edge”. When hostilities broke out, the Pakistan Air Force with around 100 F-86s faced an enemy with five times as many combat aircraft; the Indians were also equipped with comparatively modern aircraft inventory. Despite this, Werrell credits the PAF as having the advantage of a “decade’s experience with the Sabre” and pilots with long flight hours experience. One Pakistani fighter pilot, MM Alam, was credited with the record of downing five Indian aircraft in less than a minute, becoming the first known flying ace since the Korean War. However, his claims were never confirmed by the PAF and is disputed by Indian Sources and some PAF officials.

Tank battles

1965 3 Tanks of 18th Cavalry (Indian Army) on the move during the 1965 Indo-Pak War.

The 1965 war witnessed some of the largest tank battles since World War II. At the beginning of the war, the Pakistani Army had both a numerical advantage in tanks, as well as better equipment overall. Pakistani armour was largely American-made; it consisted mainly of Patton M-47 and M-48 tanks, but also included many M4 Sherman tanks, some M24 Chaffee light tanks and M36 Jackson tank destroyers, equipped with 90 mm guns. The bulk of India’s tank fleet were older M4 Sherman tanks; some were up-gunned with the French high velocity CN 75 50 guns and could hold their own, whilst some older models were still equipped with the inferior 75 mm M3 L/40 gun. Besides the M4 tanks, India fielded the British-made Centurion Tank Mk 7, with the 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 gun, and the AMX-13, PT-76, and M3 Stuart light tanks. Pakistan fielded a greater number and more modern artillery; its guns out-ranged those of the Indian artillery.

At the outbreak of war in 1965, Pakistan had about 15 armoured cavalry regiments, each with about 45 tanks in three squadrons. Besides the Pattons, there were about 200 M4 Shermans re-armed with 76 mm guns, 150 M24 Chaffee light tank and a few independent squadrons of M36B1 tank destroyers. Most of these regiments served in Pakistan’s two armoured divisions, the 1st and 6th Armoured divisions – the latter being in the process of formation.

Despite the qualitative and numerical superiority of Pakistani armour, Pakistan was outfought on the battlefield by India, which made progress into the Lahore-Sialkot sector, whilst halting Pakistan’s counteroffensive on Amritsar; they were sometimes employed in a faulty manner, such as charging prepared defences during the defeat of Pakistan’s 1st Armoured Division at Asal Uttar.

After India breached the Madhupur canal on 11 September, the Khem Karan counter-offensive was halted, affecting Pakistan’s strategy substantially. Although India’s tank formations experienced some results, India’s attack at the Battle of Chawinda, led by its 1st Armoured Division and supporting units, was brought to halt by the newly raised 6th Armoured Division (ex-100th independent brigade group) in the Chawinda sector. Pakistan claimed that Indians lost 120 tanks at Chawinda. compared to 44 of its own But later, Indian official sources confirmed India lost only 29 tanks at Chawinda. Neither the Indian nor Pakistani Army showed any great facility in the use of armoured formations in offensive operations, whether the Pakistani 1st Armoured Division at Asal Uttar or the Indian 1st Armoured Division at Chawinda. In contrast, both proved adept with smaller forces in a defensive role such as India’s 2nd Armoured Brigade at Asal Uttar and Pakistan’s 25th Cavalry at Chawinda.

Date Event
1 Aug 26,000 – 33,000 infiltrators crossed the Line of Control and reach various parts of Kashmir
28 Aug Indian army captures haji Pir pass
1 Sept Pakistan launch operation Grand slam, with an objective to capture the town of Akhnoor in Jammu
6 Sept Indian army cross the international border and march into Pakistan. 3 Jat regiment capture the town of Batapore
7 Sept A company of 5 Maratha Light Infantry was sent to hold the post at Munabao – a strategic hamlet about 250 kilometres from Jodhpur
8 Sept Special Service Group commandos from Pakistan were parachuted onto three Indian airbases for covert operations and to infiltrate them. Meanwhile a frotilla of the Pakistan navy carried out a bombardment of the Indian Navy’s radar station coastal town of Dwarka. Operation Dwarka was launched
9 Sept India’s 1 Armoured Division launched an offensive towards Sialkot.
10 Sept Pakistan recaptured the post at Munabao after a round of intense battles. Meanwhile, Battle of Asal Uttar was fought between the Pakistani 1st Armoured division and the Indian 4th Mountain Division near the town Khem Karan. India restricted the Pakistani troops from advancing further and fulfilling their mission of capturing Amritsar.
16 Sept Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri makes a statement in the Parliament and blames Pakistan.
22 Sept India’s permanent representative to UN, G Parthasarathi, conveys that India has accepted ceasefire
23 Sept Cease fire is implemented.

  Indian Air Force – MVC Awardees Indian Army – PVC Awardees 
Wg Cdr William MacDonald Goodman Lt Col Ardeshir Burzorji Tarapore*
Wg Cdr Prem Pal Singh CQM Hav Abdul Hamid*
Sqn Ldr Jag Mohan Nath  
Sqn Ldr Padmanabha Gautam Indian Army – MVC Awardees 
Sqn Ldr Ajjamada Bopayya Devayya* Major Gen Gurbaksh Singh
  Major Gen Sarup Singh Kalaan
Indian Air Force – Vir Chakra Awardees Major Gen Mohindar Singh
Wg Cdr Surapati Bhattacharya Major Gen Rajindar Singh
Wg Cdr Bharat Singh Major Gen Har Krishen Sibal
Wg Cdr Om Parkash Taneja Brigadier Zorawar Chand Bakshi
Wg Cdr Peter Maynard Wilson Brigadier Ram Dharam Dass Hira
Sqn Ldr Satish Nandan Bansal Brigadier Khem Karan Singh
Sqn Ldr Bhupendra Kumar Bishnoi Brigadier Thomas Krishnan Theogaraj
Sqn Ldr Sudesh Kumar Dahar Lt Col Madan Mohan Singh Bakshi
Sqn Ldr Tej Prakash Singh Gill Lt Col Salim Caleb
Sqn Ldr Johnny William Greene Lt Col Arun Shridhar Vaidya
Sqn Ldr Sudarshan Handa Lt Col Desmond Hayde
Sqn Ldr Jasbeer Singh Lt Col Harbans Lal Mehta
Sqn Ldr Madhukar Shantaram Jatar Lt Col Gurbans Singh Sangha
Sqn Ldr Denzil Keelor Lt Col Sampuran Singh
Sqn Ldr Trevor Keelor Lt Col Raghubir Singh
Sqn Ldr Ajit Singh Lamba Lt Col Narindra Nath Khanna
Sqn Ldr Sube Singh Malik Lt Col Pagadala Kuppuswamy Nandagopal
Sqn Ldr Chitranjan Mehta Lt Col Sant Singh
Sqn Ldr Anthony Louis Mousinho Major Asa Ram Tyagi
Sqn Ldr Inderjeet Singh Parmar Major Ranjit Singh Dyal
Sqn Ldr Amarjit Singh Sandhu Major Baljit Singh Randhawa
Sqn Ldr Shri Krishna Singh Major Sushil Kumar Mathur
Flt Lt Vinod kumar Bhatia Major Bhupinder Singh
Flt Lt Pramod Chandra Chopra Major Bhaskar Roy
Flt Lt Alfred Tyrone Cooke Captain Gautam Mubayi
Flt Lt Pradyot Dastidar Captain Chander Narain Singh
Flt Lt Sharadchandra Naresh Deshpande Captain Kapil Singh Thapa
Flt Lt Chandra Sekhar Doraiswamy Sub Tika Bahadur Thapa
Flt Lt Gopal Krishna Garud Sub Ajit Singh
Flt Lt Dil Mohan Singh Kahai Lance Hav Naubat Ram
Flt Lt Vinoy Kapila Naik Darshan Singh
Flt Lt Amarjeet Singh Kullar  
Flt Lt Ajoy Kumar Majumdar Indian Army – Vr.C Awardees 
Flt Lt Hamir Singh Mangat Lt Col Satish Chandra Joshi
Flt Lt Chandra Krishna Kumar Menon Lt Col Chajju Ram
Flt Lt Vinod Kumar Neb Lt Col Krishna Prasad Lahiri
Flt Lt Virender Singh Pathania Lt Col Megh Singh
Flt Lt Vinod Patney Lt Col Russi Hormusji Bajina
Flt Lt Prakash Pingale Lt Col Madan Lal Chadha
Flt Lt Gangadhar Rangnath Railkar Lt Col R.N. Misra
Flt Lt Dev Nath Rathore Lt Col Sampuran Singh
Flt Lt Tirlochan Singh Major Man Mohan Chopra
Fg Off Utpal Barbara Major Mohammed Ali Raas Sheikh
Fg Off Adi Rustomji Ghandhi Major Suresh Chandra Vadera
Fg Off Subodh Chandra Mamgain Major Prabhakar Shantaram Deshpande
  Major Jagdish Singh
  Major Adarsh Kumar Kochhar
  Major K.T.M. Pillai
  Major Jitinder Kumar
  Major Mukhtar Singh Khaira
  Major Darshan Singh lalli
  Major Greesh Chandra Verma
  Major Abdul Rafey Khan
  Major Parnjit Singh Grewal
  Major Puran Singh
  Major Sat Prakash Varma
  Major Bhagat Singh
  Major Surendar Mohan Sharma
  Major Dhirendra Nath Singh
  Major Surender Parshad
  Major Vijay Kumar
  Major Mohammad Ahmad Zaki
  Major Ranbir Singh
  Major Ram Swarup Sharma
  Major Somesh Kapoor
  Major Shamsher Singh Manhas
  Major Rajendra Kumar Bali
  Major Anjaparavand Thimaiah Ganapathy
  Major Sarvjit Singh Ratra
  Captain Chitoor Subramanian Krishnan
  Captain Sushil Chandra Sabherwal
  Captain Murthy Durindra Naidu
  Captain Ramesh Chandra Bakshi
  Captain Arjun Singh Narula
  Captain Surendra Shah
  Captain Diwakar Anant Paranjape
  Captain Bhikham Singh
  Captain Ranbir Singh
  Captain Prabhu Singh
  Captain Sansar Singh
  Lt Jasbir Singh
  Lt Bonala Vijaya Raghunandan Rao
  Lt Rabinder Singh Samiyal
  Lt Teja Singh
  Lt Ujjagar Singh Teje
  Lt Mahijit Singh Buttar
  2nd Lt Ravinder Singh Bedi
  2nd Lt Har Iqbal Singh Dhaliwal
  2nd Lt Mohinder Pal Singh Reet
  2nd Lt Arjun Singh Khanna
  2nd Lt Bhupinder Kumar Vaid
  2nd Lt N. Chandra Sekharan Nair
  2nd Lt Shashindra Singh
  2nd Lt Gopal Krishan
  2nd Lt Surinderpal Singh Sekhon
  2nd Lt Virendra Pratap Singh
  Sub Dina Nath
  Sub Ram Prasad Cheetri
  Sub Man Bahadur Gurung
  Sub Nand Bahadur Gurung
  Sub Khazan Singh
  Sub Pale Ram
  Sub Nand Kishore
  Sub P.M. Gregary
  Sub C.A. Madhavan Nambiar
  Sub Laxman Salunke
  Sub Piara Singh
  Naib Sub Dambar Bahadur Khattri
  Naib Sub Chhotu Ram
  Naib Sub Bhiwasan Ambhore
  Naib Sub Rajbir Singh
  Naib Sub Ajmer Singh
  Risaldar Achhar Singh
  Risaldar Kartar Singh
  Naib Risal Jagdish Singh
  Naib Risal Mohammed Ayyub Khan
  Dafadar Tarlok Singh
  Lance Daf Udham Singh
  Havildar Major Tata Pothu Raja
  Havildar C. Perumal
  Havildar Athanikal Basil Jesudasan
  Havildar Ram Ujagar Pandey
  Havildar Kanshi Ram
  Havildar Raghunath Singh
  Havildar Indra Bahadur Gurung
  Havildar Debi Prakash Singh
  Havildar Gopinath Bhingardive
  Havildar Shantaram Shinde
  Havildar Jassa Singh
  Havildar Girdhari Lal
  Havildar Kedar Singh
  Havildar K.G. George
  Lance Hav Fidu Ram
  Lance Hav Deb Singh Bhandari
  Lance Hav Umrao
  Lance Hav Gurdev Singh
  Naik Prem Singh
  Naik Debi Bahadur Gurung
  Naik Raj Bahadur Gurung
  Naik Bachittar Singh
  Naik Kunwar Singh
  Naik Chander Singh
  Naik Ganesh Datt
  Naik Ram Kumar
  Naik Jagdish Singh
  Naik Chand Singh
  Lance Naik Madalai Muthu
  Lance Naik Dev Raj
  Lance Naik Lakha Singh
  Lance Naik Bhanwar Singh
  Lance Naik Pritam Singh
  Sepoy Sukh Ram
  Sepoy Lehna Singh
  Sepoy Kannan
  Sepoy Sivadanu Bhaskaran Nair
  Sepoy Balam Ram
  Sepoy Budh Singh
  Sepoy Gurmel Singh
  Sepoy Dharam Singh
  Rifleman Ghan Bahadur Sahi
  Rifleman Dhan Bahadur Gurung
  Rifleman Mahilal
  Rifleman Mathan Singh
  Guardsman Dambar Bahadur Chhetri
   
* denotes award given posthumously  

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  • http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-others/big-picture-1965-fifty-years-later/
  • https://en.wikipedia.org
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